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Wie wird Quellcode gelesen? Forschung mit Eye-Tracking

Photo: Birte Heinemann


Open list in Research Information System


The Interdisciplinary Development of an Educational Game for Primary School Children--Lessons Learned

F. Winkelnkemper, C. Schulte, K. Eilerts, D. Bechinie, T. Huhmann, in: EdMedia+ Innovate Learning, 2020, pp. 522-529

< Big Data> aus der Perspektive von Informatischer Bildung und Medienpädagogik

J. Magenheim, MedienPädagogik: Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung (2020), 37, pp. 139-163


Der Darstellungsflüchtigkeit im Geometrieunterricht durch digitale Unterstützung entgegenwirken

T. Huhmann, K. Eilterts, C. Schulte, F. Winkelnkemper, in: Digitales Lernen in der Grundschule II: Aktuelle Trends in Forschung und Praxis, Waxmann Verlag, 2020

Data science education

J. Magenheim, C. Schulte, Encyclopedia of Education and Information Technologies. Cham: Springer (2020)


Combining Ideas and Artifacts: An Interaction-Focused View on Computing Education Using a Cybersecurity Example

L. Terfloth, L. Budde, C. Schulte, Association for Computing Machinery, 2020

In this paper, we present a novel approach to design teaching interventions for computing education, elaborated using an example of cybersecurity education. Cybersecurity education, similar to other computing education domains, often focuses on one aspect and separate themselves from the other approach. In other words, they focus on one of the two different aspects: a) either teaching how to use and to behave, or b) how technology works. Here we suggest another point of focal awareness for teaching – interaction – that allows the recombination of both approaches in a novel way, leading to a reconstruction of the teaching and learning content in a way that – as we hope – supports an understanding on a higher level and thus gives the chance to better develop agency. For this didactic reconstruction of teaching content, we use an approach called the hybrid interaction system framework. In cybersecurity training, teaching interventions oftentimes are in a way successful but seem to not lead to long-lasting changes towards secure behavior. Using simply password security as an example, we show how this new approach recombines the two different priory mentioned teaching approaches in a novel way. Within this short paper, we present our current research progress, discuss potentials and values of the approach in general, and by way of example. Our intention of this submission and early disclosure is to spark discussion and generate further insights especially regarding the following question: What implications does the hybrid interaction system approach have on learning scenarios?

Programmieren - Lehren und Lernen mit und über Medien

C. Schulte, L. Budde, F. Winkelnkemper, in: Mobile Medien im Schulkontext, Springer, 2020, pp. 215-240


Machine learning for human learners: opportunities, issues, tensions and threats

M.E. Webb, A. Fluck, J. Magenheim, J. Malyn-Smith, J. Waters, M. Deschênes , J. Zagami, Educational Technology Research and Development (2020), pp. 1-22


Explanation as a social practice: Toward a conceptual framework for the social design of AI systems

K.J. Rohlfing, P. Cimiano, I. Scharlau, T. Matzner, H.M. Buhl, H. Buschmeier, E. Esposito, A. Grimminger, B. Hammer, R. Häb-Umbach, I. Horwath, E. Hüllermeier, F. Kern, S. Kopp, K. Thommes, A.N. Ngonga Ngomo, C. Schulte, H. Wachsmuth, P. Wagner, B. Wrede, IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems (2020), pp. 1-1


Understanding and Explaining Digital Artefacts - the Role of a Duality (Accepted Paper - Digital Publication Follows)

L. Budde, C. Schulte, H. Buhl, A. Muehling, Seventh International Conference on Learning and Teaching in Computing and Engineeringe (2020)


Das RetiBNE Café

A. Schmidt, C. Schulte, in: Informatik für alle, 18. GI-Fachtagung Informatik und Schule, (INFOS) 2019, 16.-18. September 2019, Dortmund, 2019, pp. 315-324


Maschinelles Lernen im Unterricht mit Jupyter Notebook

M. Schlichtig, S.A. Opel, C. Schulte, R. Biehler, D. Frischemeier, S. Podworny, T. Wassong, in: INFOS, Gesellschaft für Informatik, 2019, pp. 385

Understanding Artificial Intelligence – A Project for the Development of Comprehensive Teaching Material

M. Schlichtig, S.A. Opel, L. Budde, C. Schulte, in: ISSEP 2019 - 12th International conference on informatics in schools: Situation, evaluation and perspectives, Local Proceedings, 2019, pp. 65 - 73

Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential for far-reaching – in our opinion – irreversible changes. They range from effects on the individual and society to new societal and social issues. The question arises as to how students can learn the basic functioning of AI systems, what areas of life and society are affected by these and – most important – how their own lives are affected by these changes. Therefore, we are developing and evaluating school materials for the German ”Science Year AI”. It can be used for students of all school types from the seventh grade upwards and will be distributed to about 2000 schools in autumn with the support of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The material deals with the following aspects of AI: Discussing everyday experiences with AI, how does machine learning work, historical development of AI concepts, difference between man and machine, future distribution of roles between man and machine, in which AI world do we want to live and how much AI would we like to have in our lives. Through an accompanying evaluation, high quality of the technical content and didactic preparation is achieved in order to guarantee the long-term applicability in the teaching context in the different age groups and school types. In this paper, we describe the current state of the material development, the challenges arising, and the results of tests with different classes to date. We also present first ideas for evaluating the results.

Developing Teaching Materials on Artificial Intelligence by Using a Simulation Game (Work in Progress)

S.A. Opel, M. Schlichtig, C. Schulte, in: WiPSCE, ACM, 2019, pp. 11:1-11:2

Critical Incidents for Technology Enhanced Learning in Vocational Education and Training

A. Wilke, J. Magenheim, in: IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON 2019, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, April 8-11, 2019, 2019, pp. 892-899


Program Comprehension: Identifying Learning Trajectories for Novice Programmers

C. Izu, C. Schulte, A. Aggarwal, Q. I. Cutts, R. Duran, M. Gutica, B. Heinemann, E. Kraemer, V. Lonati, C. Mirolo, R. Weeda, in: Proceedings of the 2019 (ACM) Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, July 15-17, 2019, 2019, pp. 261-262


Zieldimensionen für Multiplikatorinnen und Multiplikatoren früher MINT-Bildung

O. Köller, J. Magenheim, H. Molitor, U. Pfenning, J. Ramseger, M. Steffensky, C. Wiesmüller, E. Winther, B. Wollring, Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2019

Einsatz von Jupyter Notebooks am Beispiel eines fiktiven Kriminalfalls

F. Kapp, C. Schulte, in: Informatik für alle, 18. GI-Fachtagung Informatik und Schule, (INFOS) 2019, 16.-18. September 2019, Dortmund, 2019, pp. 247-256


Zur Relevanz eines Prozessbereiches Interaktion und Exploration im Kontext informatischer Bildung im Primarbereich

K. Müller, C. Schulte, J. Magenheim, in: Informatik für alle, 18. GI-Fachtagung Informatik und Schule, (INFOS) 2019, 16.-18. September 2019, Dortmund, 2019, pp. 139-148


„Der Informatikkreis “: Kinder von drei bis zehn Jahren beim Forschen in Informatik begleiten - ein methodisch-didaktisches Material

A. Franke-Wiekhorst, C. Günther, K. Brünger, J. Magenheim, R. Romeike, GdSU-Journal,(9) (2019), pp. 10-21

Entwicklung und Reflexion einer Unterrichtssequenz zum Maschinellen Lernen als Aspekt von Data Science in der Sekundarstufe II

S.A. Opel, M. Schlichtig, C. Schulte, R. Biehler, D. Frischemeier, S. Podworny, T. Wassong, in: INFOS, Gesellschaft für Informatik, 2019, pp. 285-294


Computer Science Education: Perspectives on Teaching and learning in school

S. Sentance, E. Barendsen, C. Schulte, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2018

Drafting a Data Science Curriculum for Secondary Schools

B. Heinemann, S.A. Opel, L. Budde, C. Schulte, D. Frischemeier, R. Biehler, S. Podworny, T. Wassong, in: Koli Calling, ACM, 2018, pp. 17:1-17:5

Evaluation of Learning Informatics in Primary Education - Views of Teachers and Students

J. Magenheim, K. Müller, C. Schulte, N. Bergner, K. Haselmeier, L. Humbert, D. Müller, U. Schroeder, in: Informatics in Schools. Fundamentals of Computer Science and Software Engineering - 11th International Conference on Informatics in Schools: Situation, Evolution, and Perspectives, (ISSEP) 2018, St. Petersburg, Russia, October 10-12, 2018, Proceedings, 2018, pp. 339-353


Eye-movement Modeling Examples in Source Code Comprehension: A Classroom Study

R. Bednarik, C. Schulte, L. Budde, B. Heinemann, H. Vrzakova, in: Proceedings of the 18th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research, Koli, Finland, November 22-25, 2018, 2018, pp. 2:1-2:8


Are children perceiving robots as supporting or replacing humans?: first empirical results and classification of preconceptions within a theoretical framework

K. Müller, C. Schulte, in: Proceedings of the 13th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, WiPSCE 2018, Potsdam, Germany, October 04-06, 2018, 2018, pp. 10:1-10:4


The computing repair cafe: a concept for repair cafes in computing edcuation

C. Schulte, J. Krüger, A. Gödecke, A. Schmidt, in: Proceedings of the 13th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education, WiPSCE 2018, Potsdam, Germany, October 04-06, 2018, 2018, pp. 24:1-24:6


Kritische Entgegnung auf die Studie "Zur Relevanz informatischer Bildung in der Schule für den Erwerb computer- bzw. informationsbezogener Kompetenzen"

T. Brinda, I. Diethelm, L. Hellmig, J. Magenheim, R. Romeike, U. Schroeder, MedienPädagogik: Zeitschrift für Theorie und Praxis der Medienbildung (2018), 33(Didaktik der Informatik), pp. 1-10


MediaThing – A Learning Scenario Targeting on Research Skills

F. Winkelnkemper, R. Keil, in: Proceedings of EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology., 2018, pp. 2397-2406


Zieldimensionen für frühe informatische Bildung im Kindergarten und in der Grundschule

N. Bergner, H. Köster, J. Magenheim, K. Müller, R. Romeike, U. Schroeder, C. Schulte, in: Informatische Bildung zum Verstehen und Gestalten der digitalen Welt, Proceedings der 17. GI-Fachtagung Informatik und Schule, (INFOS) 2017, 13.-15. September 2017, Oldenburg, 2017, pp. 53-62

The design and exploration cycle as research and development framework in computing education

C. Schulte, J. Magenheim, K. Müller, L. Budde, in: 2017 (IEEE) Global Engineering Education Conference, (EDUCON) 2017, Athens, Greece, April 25-28, 2017, 2017, pp. 867-876


Ein Modell zur Analyse von Vorstellungen über Roboter und ihrer Funktionsweise

K. Müller, C. Schulte, in: Informatische Bildung zum Verstehen und Gestalten der digitalen Welt, Proceedings der 17. GI-Fachtagung Informatik und Schule, (INFOS) 2017, 13.-15. September 2017, Oldenburg, 2017, pp. 109-118

A theory based tool set for analysing reading processes in the context of learning programming

L. Budde, B. Heinemann, C. Schulte, in: Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Primary and Secondary Computing Education, WiPSCE 2017, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, November 8-10, 2017, 2017, pp. 83-86



R. Biehler, C. Schulte, in: Paderborn Symposium on Data Science Education at School Level, 2017, pp. 2-14

Zieldimensionen informatischer Bildung im Elementar-und Primarbereich

N. Bergner, H. Köster, J. Magenheim, K. Müller, R. Romeike, U. Schroeder, C. Schulte, Frühe informatische Bildung - Ziele und Gelingensbedingungen für den Elementar- und Primarbereich. Berlin (2017)

Kompetenzbasierte Gestaltungsempfehlungen für Informatik-Tutorenschulungen

H. Danielsiek, P. Hubwieser, J. Krugel, J. Magenheim, L. Ohrndorf, D. Ossenschmidt, N. Schaper, J. Vahrenhold, INFORMATIK 2017 (2017)


WebArena - R {\ "a} spacious structures for {\" u} r the learning locations of the future

F. Winkelnkemper, A. Oberhoff, Publication series of the Heinz Nixdorf Institute, Paderborn, 2015, pp. 103-117

Eye movements in code reading: relaxing the linear order

T. Busjahn, R. Bednarik, A. Begel, M. E. Crosby, J. H. Paterson, C. Schulte, B. Sharif, S. Tamm, in: ICPC, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, pp. 255-265


What influences dwell time during source code reading?: analysis of element type and frequency as factors

T. Busjahn, R. Bednarik, C. Schulte, in: ETRA, ACM, 2014, pp. 335-338

Eye tracking in computing education

T. Busjahn, C. Schulte, B. Sharif, A. Begel, M. Hansen, R. Bednarik, P. Orlov, P. Ihantola, G. Shchekotova, M. Antropova, in: ICER, ACM, 2014, pp. 3-10

Developing Coding Schemes for Program Comprehension using Eye Movements

T. Busjahn, C. Schulte, E. Kropp, in: PPIG, Psychology of Programming Interest Group, 2014, pp. 15

Twenty years of learning with the World Wide Web

R. Keil, H. Selke, F. Winkelnkemper, 2014, pp. 51–60

n the summer of 1994, courses at universities were supported for the first time through the use of the World Wide Web. With the introduction of this new technology, high expectations quickly arose that the established forms of teaching and learning in schools and universities would be replaced and that the institutions themselves might even prove to be superfluous. Twenty years later, it turns out that there is a great gap between hope and reality. Some of the ideas at the time that, for example, having access to the world's knowledge at any time would make textbooks superfluous, turned out to be naive in retrospect. Characteristic of the ideas at that time was the assumption that didactic and organizational problems of teaching and learning could be solved purely technically.

Forschendes Lernen durch semantisches Positionieren

M.. Jakoblew , R. Keil, F. Winkelnkemper, in: Proceedings der HDI 2014, Universit{\"a}t Rostock, 2014, pp. 74-84

Zwischen Design und Flexibilit{\"a}t - Zur Ergonomie des Flat Design

F. Winkelnkemper, .R. Keil, Oldenbourg Verlag, 2014, pp. 255-264


Object Interaction Competence Model v. 2.0

J. Bennedsen, C. Schulte, in: LaTiCE, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, pp. 9-16

PCK and reflection in computer science teacher education

M. Buchholz, M. Saeli, C. Schulte, in: WiPSCE, ACM, 2013, pp. 8-16

The use of code reading in teaching programming

T. Busjahn, C. Schulte, in: Koli Calling, ACM, 2013, pp. 3-11


Computer science at school/CS teacher education: Koli working-group report on CS at school

C. Schulte, M. Hornung, S. Sentance, V. Dagiene, T. Jevsikova, N. Thota, A. Eckerdal, A. Peters, in: Koli Calling, ACM, 2012, pp. 29-38

Koli Calling 2009 and 2010

C. Schulte, J. Suhonen, Computer Science Education (2012), 22(2), pp. 79-80


Analysis of code reading to gain more insight in program comprehension

T. Busjahn, C. Schulte, A. Busjahn, in: Koli Calling, ACM, 2011, pp. 1-9

ProspectiveTeachers@Research: CS teacher education revised

M. Hornung, C. Schulte, in: Koli Calling, ACM, 2011, pp. 138-143

Informatik begreifen - Zur Nutzung von Veranschaulichungen im Informatikunterricht

M. Kalbitz, H. Voss, C. Schulte, in: INFOS, GI, 2011, pp. 137-146

Das Schülerlabor als Ort der Informatiklehrerbildung

C. Schulte, in: INFOS, GI, 2011, pp. 47-56


Comparison of OOP first and OOP later: first results regarding the role of comfort level

A. Ehlert, C. Schulte, in: ITiCSE, ACM, 2010, pp. 108-112

BlueJ Visual Debugger for Learning the Execution of Object-Oriented Programs?

J. Bennedsen, C. Schulte, TOCE (2010), 10(2), pp. 8:1-8:22


An evaluation of object oriented example programs in introductory programming textbooks

J. Börstler, M. S. Hall, M. Nordström, J. H. Paterson, K. Sanders, C. Schulte, L. Thomas, SIGCSE Bulletin (2009), 41(4), pp. 126-143

Informatik im Kontext (IniK) - Ein integratives Unterrichtskonzept für den Informatikunterricht

J. Koubek, C. Schulte, P. Schulze, H. Witten, in: INFOS, GI, 2009, pp. 268-279

Qualitätssicherung in einer interaktiven und lerneraktivierenden E-Learning-Umgebung

C. Schulte, R. Tolksdorf, in: DeLFI Workshops, Logos Verlag, 2009, pp. 219-225

Empirical comparison of objects-first and objects-later

A. Ehlert, C. Schulte, in: ICER, ACM, 2009, pp. 15-26

Bridging ICT and CS: educational standards for computer science in lower secondary education

T. Brinda, H. Puhlmann, C. Schulte, in: ITiCSE, ACM, 2009, pp. 288-292


What are information technology's key qualifications?

C. Dörge, C. Schulte, in: ITiCSE, ACM, 2008, pp. 296-300


Lesen im Informatikunterricht

C. Schulte, in: INFOS, GI, 2007, pp. 307-318

Das informatische Weltbild von Studierenden

C. Schulte, M. Knobelsdorf, in: INFOS, GI, 2007, pp. 69-79


What do teachers teach in introductory programming?

C. Schulte, J. Bennedsen, in: ICER, ACM, 2006, pp. 17-28

A Competence Model for Object-Interaction in Introductory Programming

J. Bennedsen, C. Schulte, in: PPIG, Psychology of Programming Interest Group, 2006, pp. 1

Gestaltung von Informatikseminaren unter Einsatz von Videokonferenzen

C. Schulte, M. Thomas, in: HDI, GI, 2006, pp. 77-88

Social, ethical and technical issues in informatics - An integrated approach

J. Magenheim, C. Schulte, EAIT (2006), 11(3-4), pp. 319-339

Research perspectives on the objects-early debate

R. Lister, A. Berglund, T. Clear, J. Bergin, K. Garvin-Doxas, B. Hanks, L. E. Hitchner, A. Luxton-Reilly, K. Sanders, C. Schulte, J. L. Whalley, SIGCSE Bulletin (2006), 38(4), pp. 146-165



Thinking in Objects and their Collaboration: Introducing Object-Oriented Technology

C. Schulte, J. Magenheim, J. Niere, W. Schäfer, Computer Science Education (2003), 13(4), pp. 269-288


Theoriegeleitete Entwicklung und Evaluation von Neuen Medien für die Lehre

C. Schulte, Softwaretechnik-Trends (2002), 22(3)

Theoriegeleitete Entwicklung und Evaluation von Neuen Medien für die Lehre

C. Schulte, in: GI Jahrestagung, GI, 2002, pp. 408-415

Das Sieben-Schritte-Schema zur Dekonstruktion objektorientierter Software

C. Schulte, U. Block, in: DDI, GI, 2002, pp. 3-12


Vom Modellieren zum Gestalten - Objektorientierung als Impuls für einen neuen Informatikunterricht?

C. Schulte, Informatica Didactica (2001), 3

Aufgabenbereiche der Medienbildung im Informatikunterricht

C. Schulte, O. Scheel, in: INFOS, {GI}, 2001, pp. 157-171


Kooperative Arbeitsplattformen - CSCW-Systeme in Lehr- und Lernkontexten

C. Schulte, H. Selke, C. Huth, LOG IN (1999), 19(3/4), pp. 40

Paderborn Symposium on Data Science Education at School Level 2017: The Collected Extended Abstracts

R. Biehler, L. Budde, D. Frischemeier, B. Heinemann, S. Podworny, C. Schulte, T. Wassong,

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