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[Translate to English:] AG Codes und Kryptographie Show image information

[Translate to English:] AG Codes und Kryptographie

Collaborative Research Centre 901 On-The-Fly Computing

Link to the official web page of CRC 901 On-The-Fly Computing

The objective of CRC 901 – On-The-Fly Computing (OTF Computing) – is to develop techniques and processes for automatic on-the-fly configuration and provision of individual IT services out of base services. The base serves are available on world-wide markets. In addition to the configuration by special OTF service providers and the provision by what are called OTF Compute Centers, this involves developing methods for quality assurance and the protection of participating clients and providers, methods for the target-oriented further development of markets, and methods to support the interaction of the participants in dynamically changing markets.

Cryptographic solutions in On-The-Fly Computing system

Successful marketing and acceptance of On-The-Fly Computing systems require dealing with their security. The highly dynamic and heterogeneous nature of the visioned system as well as data protection and further legal requirements pose a challenge for modern cryptography and require novel cryptographic solutions.

During the course of the project we intend to design solutions for confidential and authenticated communication in dynamic groups based on identity-based cryptography. This requires key revocation and reduction of power of authority for identity-based schemes. Efficient allocation of services and data access control in On-The-Fly Computing systems also require novel cryptographic schemes, which we intend to realize based on the attribute-based encryption schemes.

Another important market mechanism in On-The-Fly Computing Systems is an anonymous reputation system which enables clients to rate products and services and gives incentives to providers to improve their services. Hence, in this part of the project we develop new models of security and schemes to build a highly flexible and secure reputation system.

Work area: Access Control systems

One of our current goals is to develop secure, efficient and flexible access control systems for On-The-Fly Computing Data Centers and On-The-Fly service providers. A promising approach is to use attribute-based encryption schemes. These novel schemes use techniques from pairing-based cryptography and are related to identity-based cryptography too.

In the ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption schemes, the owner of data defines an access policy for each data and encrypts it once using this policy. The policies for different data are Boolean formulas over predefined attributes. In order to provide access to the encrypted data, the owner of data gets each customer with a special decryption key. Every key is related to a set of attributes. A customer will be able to decrypt a ciphertext if and only if the attributes of his/her key satisfy the policy of the ciphertext.

The attribute-based approach simplifies the realization of data access control systems, which then can be even stored on an untrusted server. The data access control is completely realized by the encryption and all the data must be encrypted only once for all the customers.

In this area, our research focus is on the development of efficient and flexible attribute-based encryption schemes. The policies of the existing schemes are restricted to several classes of functions and are quite inefficient. On the one hand, we are interested in the development of schemes which can be applied to general function classes. On the other hand, we are looking for more efficient methods when realizing restricted function classes. Other modifications of the schemes will be also necessary when considering further questions arising from privacy protection and further legal requirements.

Work area: reputation systems

A second goal is to develop anonymous reputation systems. To provide trustworthy, reliable, and honest ratings there is a need for anonymous reputation systems that also guarantee that customers rate products only once. To further increase trust in the system, everyone – even outsiders – should be able to verify the validity of ratings. Some of these properties have been studied in the context of group signatures. However, the concept of group signatures does not meet all the requirements for reputation systems. In particular, reputation systems do not consist of a single group of users. Rather one can think of reputation systems as a family of group signature schemes – one for each product. Moreover, we may have providers with several products. Hence, when looking at security and anonymity group signature schemes for different products can not be considered in isolation. Finally, known constructions of group signatures do not provide all properties that we need for a secure and anonymous reputation system and do not provide them simultaneously.

The research focus in the area of reputation systems is the development of new security models and efficient, flexible and secure schemes which meet all our requirements. Here we mainly consider group signatures, but also attribute-based signatures and anonymous credential systems will be taken into account.


Open list in Research Information System


Designing Business Reputation Ecosystems — A Method for Issuing and Trading Monetary Ratings on a Blockchain

S. Hemmrich, J. Bobolz, D. Beverungen, J. Blömer, in: ECIS 2023 Research Papers, 2023

Market transactions are subject to information asymmetry about the delivered value proposition, causing transaction costs and adverse market effects among buyers and sellers. Information systems research has investigated how review systems can reduce information asymmetry in business-to-consumer markets. However, these systems cannot be readily applied to business-to-business markets, are vulnerable to manipulation, and suffer from conceptual weak spots since they use textual data or star ratings. Building on design science research, we conceptualize a new class of reputation systems based on monetary-based payments as quantitative ratings for each transaction stored on a blockchain. Using cryptography, we show that our system assures content confidentiality so that buyers can share and sell their ratings selectively, establishing a reputation ecosystem. Our prescriptive insights advance the design of reputation systems and offer new paths to understanding the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences to reduce information asymmetry in B2B transactions.



Issuer-Hiding Attribute-Based Credentials

J. Bobolz, F. Eidens, S. Krenn, S. Ramacher, K. Samelin, in: Cryptology and Network Security, Springer International Publishing, 2021



Updatable Anonymous Credentials and Applications to Incentive Systems

J. Blömer, J. Bobolz, D.P. Diemert, F. Eidens, in: Proceedings of the 2019 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS '19, 2019

In this paper, we introduce updatable anonymous credential systems (UACS) and use them to construct a new privacy-preserving incentive system. In a UACS, a user holding a credential certifying some attributes can interact with the corresponding issuer to update his attributes. During this, the issuer knows which update function is run, but does not learn the user's previous attributes. Hence the update process preserves anonymity of the user. One example for a class of update functions are additive updates of integer attributes, where the issuer increments an unknown integer attribute value v by some known value k. This kind of update is motivated by an application of UACS to incentive systems. Users in an incentive system can anonymously accumulate points, e.g. in a shop at checkout, and spend them later, e.g. for a discount.


Cloud Architectures for Searchable Encryption

J. Blömer, N. Löken, in: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, ARES 2018, ACM, 2018, pp. 25:1--25:10


Delegatable Attribute-based Anonymous Credentials from Dynamically Malleable Signatures

J. Blömer, J. Bobolz, in: ACNS 2018 Applied Cryptography & Network security, 2018

In this paper, we introduce the notion of delegatable attribute-based anonymous credentials (DAAC). Such systems offer fine-grained anonymous access control and they give the credential holder the ability to issue more restricted credentials to other users. In our model, credentials are parameterized with attributes that (1) express what the credential holder himself has been certified and (2) define which attributes he may issue to others. Furthermore, we present a practical construction of DAAC. For this construction, we deviate from the usual approach of embedding a certificate chain in the credential. Instead, we introduce a novel approach for which we identify a new primitive we call dynamically malleable signatures (DMS) as the main ingredient. This primitive may be of independent interest. We also give a first instantiation of DMS with efficient protocols.

Enhanced Security of Attribute-Based Signatures

J. Blömer, F. Eidens, J. Juhnke, in: The International Conference on Cryptology And Network Security (CANS), Springer, 2018, pp. 235-255

Fully-Featured Anonymous Credentials with Reputation System

K. Bemmann, J. Blömer, J. Bobolz, H. Bröcher, D.P. Diemert, F. Eidens, L. Eilers, J.F. Haltermann, J. Juhnke, B. Otour, L.A. Porzenheim, S. Pukrop, E. Schilling, M. Schlichtig, M. Stienemeier, in: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security - ARES '18, ACM, 2018

We present CLARC (Cryptographic Library for Anonymous Reputation and Credentials), an anonymous credentials system (ACS) combined with an anonymous reputation system. Using CLARC, users can receive attribute-based credentials from issuers. They can efficiently prove that their credentials satisfy complex (access) policies in a privacy-preserving way. This implements anonymous access control with complex policies. Furthermore, CLARC is the first ACS that is combined with an anonymous reputation system where users can anonymously rate services. A user who gets access to a service via a credential, also anonymously receives a review token to rate the service. If a user creates more than a single rating, this can be detected by anyone, preventing users from spamming ratings to sway public opinion. To evaluate feasibility of our construction, we present an open-source prototype implementation.

Models and Constructions for Secure Reputation Systems

J. Juhnke, Universität Paderborn, 2018


Practical, Anonymous, and Publicly Linkable Universally-Composable Reputation Systems

J. Blömer, F. Eidens, J. Juhnke, in: Topics in Cryptology - {CT-RSA} 2018 - The Cryptographers' Track at the {RSA} Conference 2018, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, 2018, pp. 470-490

Provably Anonymous Communication Based on Trusted Execution Environments

J. Blömer, J. Bobolz, C. Scheideler, A. Setzer, 2018

In this paper, we investigate the use of trusted execution environments (TEEs, such as Intel's SGX) for an anonymous communication infrastructure over untrusted networks. For this, we present the general idea of exploiting trusted execution environments for the purpose of anonymous communication, including a continuous-time security framework that models strong anonymity guarantees in the presence of an adversary that observes all network traffic and can adaptively corrupt a constant fraction of participating nodes. In our framework, a participating node can generate a number of unlinkable pseudonyms. Messages are sent from and to pseudonyms, allowing both senders and receivers of messages to remain anonymous. We introduce a concrete construction, which shows viability of our TEE-based approach to anonymous communication. The construction draws from techniques from cryptography and overlay networks. Our techniques are very general and can be used as a basis for future constructions with similar goals.

Voronoi Cells of Lattices with Respect to Arbitrary Norms

J. Blömer, K. Kohn, SIAM Journal on Applied Algebra and Geometry. (2018), 2(2), pp. 314-338



Attribute-Based Encryption as a Service for Access Control in Large-Scale Organizations

J. Blömer, P. Günther, V. Krummel, N. Löken, in: Foundations and Practice of Security, Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 3-17

CCA-Security for Predicate Encryption Schemes

G. Liske, Universität Paderborn, 2017


Subtleties in Security Definitions for Predicate Encryption with Public Index

J. Blömer, G. Liske, in: Proceedings of the International Conference of Mathematical Aspects of Computer and Information Sciences (MACIS), Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 438-453


Construction of Fully CCA-Secure Predicate Encryptions from Pair Encoding Schemes

J. Blömer, G. Liske, in: Proceedings of the CT-RSA 2016, 2016, pp. 431-447

This paper presents a new framework for constructing fully CCA-secure predicate encryption schemes from pair encoding schemes. Our construction is the first in the context of predicate encryption which uses the technique of well-formedness proofs known from public key encryption. The resulting constructions are simpler and more efficient compared to the schemes achieved using known generic transformations from CPA-secure to CCA-secure schemes. The reduction costs of our framework are comparable to the reduction costs of the underlying CPA-secure framework. We achieve this last result by applying the dual system encryption methodology in a novel way.

Physical attacks on pairing-based cryptography

P. Günther, Universität Paderborn, 2016


Anonymous and Publicly Linkable Reputation Systems

J. Blömer, J. Juhnke, C. Kolb, in: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC), 2015, pp. 478--488

Reputation systems are used to compute and publish reputation scores for services or products. We consider reputation systems where users are allowed to rate products that they purchased previously. To obtain trustworthy reputations, they are allowed to rate these products only once. As long as users rate products once, they stay anonymous. Everybody is able to detect users deviating from the rate-products-only-once policy and the anonymity of such dishonest users can be revoked by a system manager. In this paper we present formal models for such reputation systems and their security. Based on group signatures presented by Boneh, Boyen, and Shacham we design an efficient reputation system that meets all our requirements.

Anonymous credential system based on q-Strong Diffie-Hellman Assumption

F. Eidens, Master's thesis, Universität Paderborn, 2015

Constructions of Fully Secure Predicate Encryption Schemes

P. Schleiter, Master's thesis, Universität Paderborn, 2015

Implementierung eines hybriden Verschlüsselungsverfahrens nach Cramer und Shoup

B. Kalde, Bachelor's thesis, Universität Paderborn, 2015

Number of Voronoi-relevant vectors in lattices with respect to arbitrary norms

K. Kohn, Master's thesis, Universität Paderborn, 2015

Short Group Signatures with Distributed Traceability

J. Blömer, J. Juhnke, N. Löken, in: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Mathematical Aspects of Computer and Information Sciences (MACIS), 2015, pp. 166-180

Group signatures, introduced by Chaum and van Heyst [15], are an important primitive in cryptography. In group signature schemes every group member can anonymously sign messages on behalf of the group. In case of disputes a dedicated opening manager is able to trace signatures - he can extract the identity of the producer of a given signature. A formal model for static group signatures schemes and their security is defined by Bellare, Micciancio, and Warinschi [4], the case of dynamic groups is considered by Bellare, Shi, and Zhang [5]. Both models define group signature schemes with a single opening manager. The main difference between these models is that the number of group members in static schemes is fixed, while in dynamic schemes group members can join the group over time.

Voronoi Cells of Lattices with Respect to Arbitrary Norms

J. Blömer, K. Kohn, Universität Paderborn, 2015

Motivated by the deterministic single exponential time algorithm of Micciancio and Voulgaris for solving the shortest and closest vector problem for the Euclidean norm, we study the geometry and complexity of Voronoi cells of lattices with respect to arbitrary norms.On the positive side, we show that for strictly convex and smooth norms the geometry of Voronoi cells of lattices in any dimension is similar to the Euclidean case, i.e., the Voronoi cells are defined by the so-called Voronoi-relevant vectors and the facets of a Voronoi cell are in one-to-one correspondence with these vectors. On the negative side, we show that combinatorially Voronoi cells for arbitrary strictly convex and smooth norms are much more complicated than in the Euclidean case.In particular, we construct a family of three-dimensional lattices whose number of Voronoi-relevant vectors with respect to the l_3-norm is unbounded.Since the algorithm of Micciancio and Voulgaris and its run time analysis crucially dependonthefactthatfortheEuclidean normthenumber of Voronoi-relevant vectors is single exponential in the lattice dimension, this indicates that the techniques of Micciancio and Voulgaris cannot be extended to achieve deterministic single exponential time algorithms for lattice problems with respect to arbitrary l_p-norms.


A Practical Second-Order Fault Attack against a Real-World Pairing Implementation

J. Blömer, R. Gomes da Silva, P. Günther, J. Krämer, J. Seifert, in: Proceedings of Fault Tolerance and Diagnosis in Cryptography(FDTC), 2014, pp. 123--136

Several fault attacks against pairing-based cryptography have been described theoretically in recent years. Interestingly, none of these have been practically evaluated. We accomplished this task and prove that fault attacks against pairing-based cryptography are indeed possible and are even practical — thus posing a serious threat. Moreover, we successfully conducted a second-order fault attack against an open source implementation of the eta pairing on an AVR XMEGA A1. We injected the first fault into the computation of the Miller Algorithm and applied the second fault to skip the final exponentiation completely. We introduce a low-cost setup that allowed us to generate multiple independent faults in one computation. The setup implements these faults by clock glitches which induce instruction skips. With this setup we conducted the first practical fault attack against a complete pairing computation.

Constructing CCA-secure predicate encapsulation schemes from CPA-secure schemes and universal one-way hash functions

J. Blömer, G. Liske, 2014

We present a new transformation of chosen-plaintext secure predicate encryption schemes with public index into chosen-ciphertext secure schemes. Our construction requires only a universal one-way hash function and is selectively secure in the standard model. The transformation is not generic but can be applied to various existing schemes constructed from bilinear groups. Using common structural properties of these schemes we provide an efficient and simple transformation without overhead in form of one-time signatures or message authentication codes as required in the known generic transformations.

Fujisaki-Okamoto Transformation

J. Lippert, Bachelor's thesis, Universität Paderborn, 2014

Hiding software components using functional encryption

J. Jochheim, Master's thesis, Universität Paderborn, 2014

RSA-Full Domain Hash Revisited

T. Rath, Bachelor's thesis, Universität Paderborn, 2014

RSA Full Domain Hash ist im Zufallsorakelmodell ein EUF-CMA sicheres Signaturverfahren (existentially unforgeable under chosen-message attacks). Der Sicherheitsbeweis wird unter anderem in der Vorlesung Einf{\"u}hrung in die Kryptographie vorgestellt. Auch bei einer genaueren Analyse verliert man bei der Reduktion einen Faktor \nicefrac{1}{q_{s}}(wobei q_{s}die Anzahl der Anfragen an das Signaturorakel darstellt), was f{\"u}r die Praxis in relativ großen Systemparametern (RSA-Modul) resultiert [1].Seit der Ver{\"o}ffentlichung von [2] wurde geglaubt, dass der Faktor \nicefrac{1}{q_{s}}optimal ist. Erst zehn Jahre sp{\"a}ter offenbarten die Autoren von [3] einen Fehler in [2] und zeigten eine bessere Reduktion allerdings unter einer etwas st{\"a}rkeren Sicherheitsannahme.Die Ergebnisse aus [3] lassen sich auf PSS-Verfahren (Probabilistic Signature Scheme), das z.B. in PKCS #1 benutzt wird, {\"u}bertragen und sind somit von großer Bedeutung f{\"u}r die Praxis. Weiterhin sind die in den Beweisen verwendete Techniken n{\"u}tzlich auch bei anderen kryptographischen Verfahren.In Rahmen dieser Arbeit sollen die entsprechenden Sicherheitsbeweise aufgearbeitet und dessen Auswirkungen f{\"u}r die Praxis analysiert werden.[1] J.S. Coron, “On the Exact Security of Full Domain Hash”, CRYPTO 2000. LNCS 1880, pp. 229-235, 2000.[2] J.S. Coron, “Optimal security proofs for PPS and other signature schemes”, EUROCRYPT 2002. LNCS 2332, pp 272-287, 2002.[3] S.A. Kakvi and E. Kiltz, “Optimal Security Proofs for Full Domain Hash, Revisited”, in EUROCRYPT 2012. LNCS 7237, pp 537-553, 2012.

Tampering attacks in pairing-based cryptography

J. Blömer, P. Günther, G. Liske, in: Proceedings of Fault Tolerance and Diagnosis in Cryptography(FDTC), 2014, pp. 1--7

In the last decade pairings have become an important, and often indispensable, ingredient in the construction of identity-based and attribute-based cryptosystems, as well as group signatures and credential systems. Consequently, the applicability of timing, power, or fault attacks to implementations of pairings is an important research topic. We will review some of the known results in this area.


Direct Chosen-Ciphertext Secure Attribute-Based Key Encapsulations without Random Oracles

J. Blömer, G. Liske, 2013

We present a new technique to realize attribute-based encryption (ABE) schemes secure in the standard model against chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCA-secure). Our approach is to extend certain concrete chosen-plaintext secure (CPA-secure) ABE schemes to achieve more efficient constructions than the known generic constructions of CCA-secure ABE schemes. We restrict ourselves to the construction of attribute-based key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) and present two concrete CCA-secure schemes: a key-policy attribute-based KEM that is based on Goyal's key-policy ABE and a ciphertext-policy attribute-based KEM that is based on Waters' ciphertext-policy ABE. To achieve our goals, we use an appropriate hash function and need to extend the public parameters and the ciphertexts of the underlying CPA-secure encryption schemes only by a single group element. Moreover, we use the same hardness assumptions as the underlying CPA-secure encryption schemes.

Securing Critical Unattended Systems with Identity Based Cryptography - A Case Study

J. Blömer, P. Günther, V. Krummel, in: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Mathematical Aspects of Computer and Information Sciences (MACIS), 2013, pp. 98-105

Unattended systems are key ingredients of various critical infrastruc-tures like networks of self service terminals or automated teller machines.For cost and efficiency reasons they should mostly run autonomously.Unattended systems are attractive and lucrative targets for various kindsof attacks, including attacks on the integrity of their components and thecommunication between components. In this paper, we propose a gen-eral cryptographic framework to protect unattended systems. We alsodemonstrate that instantiating the framework with techniques from iden-tity based cryptography is particularly well-suited to efficiently secureunattended systems.

Seitenkanalresistenz paarungsbasierter Kryptographie

O. Otte, Bachelor's thesis, Universität Paderborn, 2013


Attribute-basierte Verschlüsselung

P. Schleiter, Bachelor's thesis, Universität Paderborn, 2012


Fault attacks in pairing-based cryptography

G. Liske, Master's thesis, Universität Paderborn, 2011

Open list in Research Information System

The University for the Information Society